MAP Parent Report - Additional Information

Measures of Academic Progress (MAP)

### What is Measures of Academic Progress (MAP)?

The MAP assessment is one of many ways that we evaluate the learning level of each student at the beginning, middle and end of the year in reading and math. MAP was designed by Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA), a nonprofit that delivers assessments that accurately measure student growth and learning needs. Approximately 8 million students from over 7,800 schools and districts across the US and in 140 countries around the world take MAP assessments. The MAP assessment is based on the Common Core State Standards, which have been adopted by 42 out of 50 states including NY and NJ.

MAP is an online adaptive assessment, which means that each student receives a unique set of questions based on responses to previous questions. As the student answers correctly, questions get harder. If the student answers incorrectly, the questions get easier. This unique approach to assessment results in a personalized, engaging, and challenging experience for each student that produces actionable information about what he or she knows and does not yet know. After the completion of the MAP test, teachers review each student’s results and develop an appropriate, personalized learning plan in order to ensure that student’s academic growth according to his or her own level.

### What is Common Core?

The Common Core is a set of high-quality academic standards in mathematics and English language arts/literacy (ELA). These learning goals outline what a student should know and be able to do at the end of each grade. These standards establish what students should know by the end of the year, but do not dictate how teachers should teach. The standards were created to ensure that all students graduate from high school with the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in college, career, and life, regardless of where they live. Forty-two states have voluntarily adopted and are moving forward with the Common Core.

Learn more about Common Core at http://www.corestandards.org/

MAP Grades K-2 Reading Domains

### Foundational Skills (Grades K-2)

Foundational Skills include the understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system. Phonological Awareness focuses on the ability to accurately distinguish the sounds (phonemes) of spoken words. Phonics focuses on the ability to accurately decode written words, matching sounds to letters. Word Recognition focuses on the ability to recognize frequently occurring ("high-frequency") words. As children build reading skills, they develop the ability to instantly recognize a wider range of words, but it helps to learn some of the most frequently occurring words by sight, especially when some of the words don't conform to basic phonics principles.

**Phonics and Word Recognition**

- Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words
- Use knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, and syllabication patterns to read unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context
- Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds
- Spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams
- Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels
- Distinguish long and short vowels in regularly spelled one syllable words
- Read common high-frequency words (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does)
- Decode regularly spelled one and two syllable words, two-syllable words with long vowels, multisyllable words
- Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word
- Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences
- Recognize grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words
- Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs
- Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ

**Phonological Awareness**

- Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes)
- Recognize rhyming words
- Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words; count, blend, syllables
- Blend onsets and rimes of single-syllable
- Isolate the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.), and in spoken single-syllable words
- Add or substitute individual sounds in simple, one-syllable words to make new words

**Print Concepts**

- Understand the organization and basic features of print
- Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page
- Recognize features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation)
- Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by sequences of letters
- Understand that words are separated by spaces in print
- Recognize all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet

### Language & Writing (Grades K-2)

Language & Writing encompasses the skills students need in order to demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use and writing – including syntax and the development and organization of ideas – using increasingly demanding content and sources..

**Capitalize, Spell, Punctuate**

- Demonstrate conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling
- Capitalize the first word in a sentence, the pronoun I, dates, names of people, holidays, and geographic names, and appropriate words in titles
- Recognize and name end punctuation; use end punctuation for sentences
- Use commas in dates, to separate single words in a series, in greetings, closings of letters, and addresses; use an apostrophe to form contractions and possessives
- Form and use possessives
- Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue
- Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns, irregular words, high-frequency, adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness)
- Spell simple words phonetically
- Spell untaught words phonetically
- Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage → badge; boy → boil) and word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts, consult reference materials, dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings

**Language: Grammar & Usage**

- Demonstrate conventions of standard English grammar and usage
- Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
- Use reflexive pronouns; form regular plural nouns
- Form and use irregular plural nouns, abstract nouns (e.g., childhood), singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop); use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns
- Form and use the past tense of irregular verbs
- Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future
- Form and use the simple verb tenses; use adjectives and adverbs
- Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs
- Use conjunctions, coordinating and subordinating conjunctions
- Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives), use prepositions
- Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement
- Produce and expand complete sentences simple, complex, compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences
- Understand and use question words (interrogatives)
- Expand and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences

**Writing Purposes: Plan, Develop, Edit**

- Write arguments to support claims, introduce the topic, state an opinion, support a point of view with reasons, create an organizational structure that lists reasons, and provide some sense of closure, concluding statement or section
- Use linking words and phrases (e.g., and, also, because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons
- Write informative/explanatory convey ideas and information clearly;
- Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details, provide closure, concluding statement
- Use facts and definitions to develop points, group related information together
- Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or recount events, details, provide a reaction to what happened
- Use temporal words to signal event order
- Describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, develop real or imagined experiences or events, use effective technique
- Introduce a narrator and/or characters and use dialogue
- Identify purpose and audience; develop writing by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, add details
- With guidance and support recall information, gather information from provided print and digital sources to answer a question

### Literature & Informational Texts (Grades K-2)

Literature & Informational Texts includes skills that students acquire in order to comprehend, summarize, analyze, and draw inferences from increasingly difficult and rigorous literature (fiction) and informational (nonfiction) texts. In the younger grades, these texts are typically read aloud to the student in order to specifically isolate comprehension skills from the ability to decode and recognize words (Foundational Skills).

**Informational Texts: Key Ideas, Details, Craft, Structure**

- Make inferences; cite textual evidence, support conclusions
- Answer questions about key details
- Determine central ideas, main topic, or themes
- Summarize the key supporting details and ideas
- Determine the main topic, retell
- Analyze how and why individuals, events, ideas develop and interact
- Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information, a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, steps in technical procedures
- Use language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect
- Interpret words and phrases, including technical, connotative, figurative meanings, general academic and domain-specific
- Analyze how word choices shape meaning or tone
- Answer questions about unknown words to determine or clarify the meaning; analyze the structure of texts, including specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions
- Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book
- Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes)
- Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each
- Distinguish between information provided by pictures, illustrations and words
- Integrate and evaluate diverse media and formats; describe the relationship between illustrations and the text
- Use the illustrations and details to describe its key ideas
- Use information gained from illustrations to demonstrate understanding of the text
- Identify and describe the reasons an author gives to support points
- Describe the logical connection between sentences and paragraphs (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence)
- Identify basic similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic

**Literature: Key Ides, Craft, Structure**

- Make and support inferences
- Draw conclusions; answer questions
- Retell, summarize, and analyze details, central ideas, message, lesson, and themes of texts, including text read aloud
- Analyze individuals, and events
- Identify characters, settings, major events and challenges
- Explain characters actions contribute to the sequence of events
- Identify, interpret, and analyze words, phrases, technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, word choices that shape meaning or tone and appeal to the senses and distinguish literal from nonliteral language
- Analyze the structure of texts, sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions (a section, chapter, scene, or stanza)
- Recognize and analyze differences between texts (storybooks, poems) and how texts address similar themes or topics
- Identify point of view or purpose, identify author and illustrator and the role of each
- Identify who is telling the story
- Evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats including comparing and contrasting two or more version of the same story by different authors or different cultures or stories by the same author
- Identify how specific aspects of illustrations contribute to mood
- Use illustrations and details to describe characters, setting, or events
- Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly

### Vocabulary Use & Functions (Grades K-2)

Vocabulary Use & Functions comprises the set of skills necessary to determine the meaning of unknown words as well as the ability to properly use a variety of words and phrases in the appropriate context. Reading complex texts requires a rich vocabulary, including both general academic vocabulary and domain-specific words from science and other content areas. Critical to the development of deep word knowledge is the ability to recognize word relationships and to have a command of independent word-learning strategies such as analyzing context and recognizing common prefixes, suffixes, and base words. This subtest assesses both word knowledge and word-learning strategies, as well as word relationships. In the younger grades, these words are often read aloud to the student in order to specifically isolate vocabulary skills from the ability to decode and recognize words (Foundational Skills).

**Context Clues & References**

- Determine the meaning of unknown, multiple-meaning words, and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts
- Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck)
- Use inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, - ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word
- Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word
- Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g., agreeable/disagreeable, care/careless, heat/preheat)
- Identify root words and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking)
- Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root
- Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly)
- Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital

**Vocabulary Acquisition & Use**

- Understand figurative language, word relationships and nuances
- Sort common objects and words into categories (e.g., shapes, foods)
- Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases (e.g., take steps); define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims)
- Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful)
- Understands verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms)
- Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance)
- Adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic); understand closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl), related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender) and words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (e.g., knew, believed)
- Use words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening
- Demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term
- Include conjunctions to signal simple relationships
- Use adjectives and adverbs to describe
- Use words and phrases that signal spatial and temporal relationships

MAP Grades K-2 Math Domains

### Operations & Algebraic Thinking (Grades K-2)

Operations & Algebraic Thinking includes the relationships between numbers, the meaning of operations, the relationships between operations, and the ability to use the appropriate operations to solve real world and mathematical problems. In grades K-2, students focus on the meaning of addition and subtraction in context and represent these operations with number sentences. They use algebraic properties and the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction to check their work.

**Represent & Solve Problems**

- Represent and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
- Understand addition as putting together and adding to and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from
- Solve problems involving the four operations
- Solve one- and two-step problems with unknowns in all positions
- Interpret products and whole number quotients
- Use multiplication and division to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities
- Identify and explain patterns of arithmetic

**Properties of Operations**

- Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction and understand and apply properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division
- Work with equal groups to gain foundations for multiplication
- Determine whether a group of objects has an odd or even number of members
- Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem
- Understand the meaning of the equal sign
- Understand division as an unknown factor problem

### Number & Operations (Grades K-2)

Number & Operations focuses on representing, comparing, and performing operations with numbers. This domain eventually includes whole numbers, decimals, fractions, integers, and irrational numbers, and emphasizes both conceptual understanding and computation. In grades K-2, students develop an understanding of place value through 1,000 by comparing and representing whole numbers in different ways. They learn the meaning of addition and subtraction and build fluency with these operations.

**Understand Place Value, Counting, and Cardinality**

- Understand place value and count to tell the number of objects, know number names and the count sequence, and extend the counting sequence
- Count within 1000 by 1s and 10s
- Skip count by 5s, 10s, and 100s
- Read numerals and represent a number of objects with a numeral
- Count things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as a scattered configuration
- Compose and decompose numbers into tens and ones
- Understand that the three digits of a three-digit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; compare numbers based on meanings of digits

**Number & Operations: Base Ten and Fractions**

- Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic and develop understanding of fractions
- Use concrete models, strategies, and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction
- Add and subtract multiples of 10
- Add and subtract within 1000
- Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10
- Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by one part when the whole is partitioned into b equal groups
- Understand and represent a fraction as a number on the number line
- Compare fractions and explain equivalence of fractions

### Measurement & Data (Grades K-2)

Measurement & Data focuses on measurement tools and units, as well as data. Physical measurement activities lead to the development of formulas for geometric measurements. Data skills include graphing, analysis, and in later grades, statistics and probability. In grades K-2, students learn that objects can be measured by different attributes and then measure and estimate the length of objects. They solve problems involving time and money, and present data on simple graphs.

**Solve Problems Using Measurement**

- Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of lengths in standard units, intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects
- Describe, compare and order measurable attributes of objects
- Relate addition and subtraction to length on a number line diagram
- Work with time and money
- Use geometric measurement to understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition and recognize perimeter as an attribute of plane figures and distinguish between linear and area measures

**Represent & Interpret Data**

- Organize, represent, and interpret data
- Ask and answer questions about the data points
- Use picture graphs and bar graphs to represent a data set with several categories; solve put-together, take-apart, and compare one- and two-step problems using information presented in a graph
- Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category
- Sort by category
- Generate measurement data in whole, half and quarter units and show the data by making a line plot

### Geometry (Grades K-2)

Geometry involves describing the attributes and relationships among a growing range of shapes and in the later grades, making evidence-based observations and arguments. This understanding is then applied to categorizing shapes by attributes in the early grades and making informed observations about congruence, similarity, and measurements in the later grades. In grades K-2, students use simple geometric terms to describe and compare attributes of shapes. They compose and decompose plane figures and solid figures to help develop foundations for understanding symmetry, congruence, similarity, area, and volume.

**Reason with Shapes & Their Attributes**

- Reason with shapes and their attributes
- Identify and describe shapes having specified attributes
- Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes
- Understand that shapes in different categories may share attributes and that the shared attributes can define a larger category
- Compose two-dimensional or three-dimensional shapes to create a composite shape
- Partition shapes into two, three, or four equal shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third
- Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of same-size squares

MAP Grades 3-5 Reading Domains

### Literature (Grades 3-5)

Literature represents the close and active engagement with the details of literary (fiction) texts, with a focus on comprehension skills and strategies.

**Key Ideas & Details**

- Understand explicitly stated ideas
- Cite textual evidence, make and support inferences and conclusions
- Determine central ideas or themes, retell and summarize with key supporting details and ideas
- Analyze development and interaction of individuals, events and ideas
- Compare and contrast themes and characters within and across texts
- Identify and describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details

**Craft & Structure**

- Analyze how word choice (rhyme, alliteration, analogies, allusion, multiple meaning words, fresh, engaging, or beautiful language) shapes meaning or tone
- Analyze text structure, including the relationship of parts to each other and to the whole, the ordering of events, and devices such as flashback and foreshadowing
- Analyze point of view and purpose
- Integrate information from illustrations with information in the text
- Analyze how two texts address similar themes or topic in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take

### Informational Texts (Grades 3-5)

Informational Texts represents the close and active engagement with the details of informational (nonfiction) texts, with a focus on comprehension skills and strategies.

**Key Ideas & Details**

- Understand explicitly stated ideas
- Cite textual evidence, make inferences, support conclusions
- Determine central ideas or themes, retell and summarize with key supporting details and ideas
- Compare and contrast important points and main ideas within and across texts
- Analyze development and interaction of individuals, events, and ideas

**Craft & Structure**

- Analyze how word choice (e.g., the language of a court opinion vs that of a newspaper, analogies, allusions) affects the meaning and tone of a text
- Analyze how authors use and refine the meaning of key terms
- Analyze and evaluate text structure, including the relationship of parts to each other and to the whole, the development and refinement of ideas or claims, and the effectiveness of a given structure for an exposition or argument
- Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence
- Compare and contrast different authors’ presentations of similar ideas

### Vocabulary Acquisition & Use (Grades 3-5)

Vocabulary Acquisition & Use focuses on word knowledge, word-learning strategies, and word relationships. Reading complex texts requires a rich vocabulary, and students are expected to know both general academic vocabulary and domain-specific words from science and other content areas. Critical to the development of deep word knowledge is the ability to recognize word relationships and to have a command of independent word-learning strategies such as analyzing context and recognizing common prefixes, suffixes, and base words.

**Context Clues & Reference**

- Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials as appropriate
- Acquire grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases

**Word Relationships & Nuance**

- Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings
- Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs, cause/effect, part/whole, item/category, analogy) to better understand each of the words
- Acquire grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases

MAP Grades 3-5 Math Domains

### Operations & Algebraic Thinking (Grades 3-5)

Operations & Algebraic Thinking focuses on the relationships between numbers, the meaning of operations, and the relationships between operations. This includes using the appropriate operations to solve real world and mathematical problems. In grades 3-5, students represent and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. They use algebraic properties and relationships between operations to solve problems.

**Represent & Solve Problems**

- Represent and solve problems involving the four operations
- Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction
- Add and subtract within 20
- Work with addition and subtraction equations
- Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication
- Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division
- Multiply and divide within 100
- Write and interpret numerical expressions

**Analyze Patterns & Relationships**

- Analyze patterns and relationships
- Identify and explain patterns in arithmetic
- Gain familiarity with factors and multiples
- Identify arithmetic patterns and explain them using properties of operations
- Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule
- Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules, form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane

### Number & Operations (Grades 3-5)

Number & Operations focuses on representing, comparing, and performing operations with numbers. This domain eventually includes whole numbers, decimals, fractions, integers, and irrational numbers, and emphasizes both conceptual understanding and computation. In grades 3-5, students gain an understanding of fractions and decimals and develop fluency with all four operations involving whole numbers, fractions, and decimals.

**Understand Place Value, Counting, and Cardinality**

- Understand the place value system and counting and cardinality
- Know number names and the count sequence
- Skip count by 5s, 10s, and 100s
- Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers
- Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form
- Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place
- Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths
- Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers and decimals to any place

**Number & Operations in Base 10**

- Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic
- Perform operations with decimals to hundredths
- Fluently add, subtract, and multiply multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm
- Use rounding with multi-digit arithmetic
- Find whole-number quotients of whole numbers with up to four-digit dividends and two-digit divisors
- Use strategies based on place value and the properties of operations for multi-digit operations

**Number & Operations: Fractions**

- Number and operations-fractions
- Develop understanding of fractions as numbers
- Understand fraction equivalence and ordering
- Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers
- Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions
- Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions
- Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions
- Solve word problems involving fractions

### Measurement & Data (Grades 3-5)

Measurement & Data focuses on measurement tools and units, as well as data. Physical measurement activities lead to the development of formulas for geometric measurements. Data skills include graphing, analysis, and in later grades, statistics and probability. In grades 3-5, students study concepts of area, perimeter, and volume and use this understanding to develop formulas. They learn about the relationship among units of measure to solve problems involving liquid volume, mass, time, and money. They present data on line plots and line graphs.

**Geometric Measurement & Problem Solving**

- Solve problems involving measurement and understand concepts of geometric measurement
- Relate addition and subtraction to length by representing whole number sums and difference on a number line
- Tell and write time
- Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money
- Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system
- Understand concepts of area and volume and relate area and volume to multiplication and addition
- Understand concepts of angle and measure angles
- Recognize perimeter as an attribute of plane figures and distinguish between linear and area measures
- Measure and estimate the length of an object

**Represent & Interpret Data**

- Organize, represent, and interpret data
- Generate measurement data by measuring lengths to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object
- Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit
- Use operations on fractions to solve problems involving information presented in line plots
- Draw a single-unit and scaled picture graph and a single-unit and scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories
- Solve one- and two-step “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs

### Geometry (Grades 3-5)

Geometry involves describing the attributes and relationships among a growing range of shapes and in the later grades, making evidence-based observations and arguments. This understanding is then applied to categorizing shapes by attributes in the early grades and making informed observations about congruence, similarity, and measurements in the later grades. In grades 3-5, students describe equal parts of shapes with fractions. They use knowledge of angels and perpendicular and parallel lines to classify two-dimensional figures. Students recognize line symmetry in figures and plot points on the coordinate plane.

**Reason with Shapes, Attributes, & Coordinate Plane**

- Reason with shapes and their attributes: Identify and describe shapes
- Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes
- Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles, and perpendicular and parallel lines and identify these in two-dimensional figures; classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles; graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems
- Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties
- Partition shapes into parts with equal areas and express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole
- Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure

MAP Grades 6-12 Reading Domains

### Literature (Grades 6-12)

Literature represents the close and active engagement with the details of increasingly challenging literary (fiction) texts, with a focus on comprehension skills and strategies.

**Key Ideas & Details**

- Understand explicitly stated ideas
- Cite textual evidence, make and support inferences and conclusions
- Determine central ideas or themes, retell and summarize with key supporting details and ideas
- Analyze development and interaction of individuals, events and ideas
- Compare and contrast themes and characters within and across texts
- Identify and describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details

**Craft & Structure**

- Analyze how word choice (rhyme, alliteration, analogies, allusion, multiple meaning words, fresh, engaging, or beautiful language) shapes meaning or tone
- Analyze text structure, including the relationship of parts to each other and to the whole, the ordering of events, and devices such as flashback and foreshadowing
- Analyze point of view and purpose
- Integrate information from illustrations with information in the text
- Analyze how two texts address similar themes or topic in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take

### Informational Texts (Grades 6-12)

Informational Texts represents the close and active engagement with the details of increasingly challenging informational (nonfiction) texts, with a focus on comprehension skills and strategies.

**Key Ideas & Details**

- Understand explicitly stated ideas
- Cite textual evidence, make inferences, support conclusions
- Determine central ideas or themes, retell and summarize with key supporting details and ideas
- Compare and contrast important points and main ideas within and across texts
- Analyze development and interaction of individuals, events, and ideas

**Craft & Structure**

- Analyze how word choice (e.g., the language of a court opinion vs that of a newspaper, analogies, allusions) affects the meaning and tone of a text
- Analyze how authors use and refine the meaning of key terms
- Analyze and evaluate text structure, including the relationship of parts to each other and to the whole, the development and refinement of ideas or claims, and the effectiveness of a given structure for an exposition or argument
- Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence
- Compare and contrast different authors’ presentations of similar ideas

### Vocabulary Acquisition & Use (Grades 6-12)

Vocabulary Acquisition & Use focuses on word knowledge, word-learning strategies, and word relationships. Reading complex texts requires a rich vocabulary, and students are expected to know both general academic vocabulary and domain-specific words from science and other content areas with increasing difficulty. Critical to the development of deep word knowledge is the ability to recognize word relationships and to have a command of independent word-learning strategies such as analyzing context and recognizing common prefixes, suffixes, and base words.

**Context Clues & Reference**

- Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials as appropriate
- Acquire grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases

**Word Relationships & Nuance**

- Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings
- Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs, cause/effect, part/whole, item/category, analogy) to better understand each of the words
- Acquire grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases

MAP Grades 6-12 Math Domains

### Operations & Algebraic Thinking (Grades 6-12)

Operations & Algebraic Thinking focuses on the relationships between numbers, the meaning of operations, and the relationships between operations. This includes using the appropriate operations to solve real world and mathematical problems. Students work on extending previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions, as well as the definition and analysis of functions.

**Expressions & Equations**

- Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions and equations
- Solve one-variable equations and inequalities (including linear, quadratic, rational, and radical)
- Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions
- Interpret the structure of expressions
- Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations
- Work with radicals and integer exponents
- Use scientific notation
- Solve systems of equations
- Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials
- Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically
- Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations

**Use Functions to Model Relationships**

- Use functions to model relationships between quantities
- Define, evaluate, and compare functions
- Understand the concept of a function and use function notation
- Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context
- Analyze functions using different representations
- Build new functions from existing functions; construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems
- Extend the domain of trigonometric functions using the unit circle
- Model periodic phenomena with trigonometric functions
- Prove and apply trigonometric identities.

### Real & Complex Numbers (Grades 6-12)

Real & Complex Numbers builds upon the Numbers & Operations (K-5) domain by focusing on representing, comparing, and performing operations with whole numbers, decimals, fractions, integers, and irrational numbers, emphasizing both conceptual understanding and computation.

**Ratios & Proportional Relationships**

- Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real- world and mathematical problems
- Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems
- Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems
- Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities
- Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems

**Perform Operations**

- Apply and extend previous understandings of operations
- Divide fractions by fractions
- Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples
- Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers
- Perform arithmetic operations with complex numbers
- Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers
- Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems

**Extend & Use Properties**

- Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers
- Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers
- Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents
- Use properties of rational and irrational numbers
- Solve real-world and mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane

### Geometry (Grades 6-12)

Geometry involves describing the attributes and relationships among a growing range of shapes and in the later grades, making evidence-based observations and arguments. Students work on solving real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, volume, angle measurements, congruence, and similarity for an increasingly complex set of two- and three-dimensional shapes.

**Geometric Measurement & Relationships**

- Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, circumference, surface area, volume, and angle measure
- Visualize relationships between two-dimensional and three- dimensional objects
- Understand and apply theorems about circles
- Find arc lengths and areas of sectors of circles
- Translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section
- Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically
- Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures

**Congruence, Similarity, Right Triangles, & Trigonometry**

- Understand congruence and similarity using physical models
- Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem
- Experiment with transformations in the plane
- Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions
- Prove geometric theorems; understand similarity in terms of similarity transformations
- Use facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles and about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal
- Prove theorems involving similarity
- Define trigonometric ratios and solve problems involving right triangles

### Statistics & Probability (Grades 6-12)

Statistics & Probability builds upon the Measurement & Data (K-5) domain by focusing on measurement tools and units, as well as data. Physical measurement activities lead to the development of formulas for geometric measurements. Data skills include graphing, analysis, and in later grades, statistics and probability. Students work on developing an understanding of statistical variability, drawing inferences, investigating patterns, and developing, using, and evaluating probability models.

**Interpreting Categorical & Quantitative Data**

- Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable and on two categorical and quantitative variables
- Develop understanding of statistical variability
- Summarize and describe distributions
- Use measures of center and measures of variability
- Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations
- Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data
- Interpret linear models
- Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots)

**Using Sampling and Probability to Make Decisions**

- Use random sampling and the rules of probability
- Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population
- Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models
- Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments
- Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies
- Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data
- Use the rules of probability to compute probabilities of compound events in a uniform probability model

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